The information presented below is intended to inform the user of more details about the placement, use and management of the “cookies” used by the avrainstitute.ro site. There are also some useful links related to this topic.
Please read the following information carefully:
This website uses its own and third-party cookies to provide visitors with a much better browsing experience and services tailored to each individual’s needs and interests.
In what we call “web 2.0”, “cookies” play an important role in facilitating the access and delivery of the multiple services that the user enjoys on the Internet, such as:
- Customizing certain settings such as: the language in which a site is viewed, the currency in which certain prices or rates are expressed, keeping the options for various products (measurements, other details, etc.) in the shopping cart (and memorizing these options) – generating -thus the flexibility of the “shopping basket” (access to old preferences by accessing the “forward” and “back” button)
- Cookies provide website owners with valuable feedback on how their websites are used by users, so that they can make them even more efficient and accessible to users.
- Allow multimedia or other applications from other sites to be included in a particular site to create a more valuable, useful and enjoyable browsing experience;
- Improve the effectiveness of online advertising.
What is a “cookie”?
An “Internet Cookie” (also known as “browser cookie” or “HTTP cookie” or simply “cookie”) is a small file, consisting of letters and numbers, which will be stored on the computer, mobile terminal or other equipment of a user from which the Internet is accessed.
The cookie is installed through the request issued by a web server to a browser (eg: Internet Explorer, Chrome) and is completely “passive” (it does not contain software programs, viruses or spyware and cannot access the information on the hard drive the user).
A cookie consists of 2 parts: the name and the content or value of the cookie. Moreover, the duration of existence of a cookie is determined; technically, only the web server that sent the cookie can access it again when a user returns to the website associated with that web server.
Cookies themselves do not require personal information to be used and, in most cases, do not personally identify Internet users.
There are 2 large categories of cookies:
- Session cookies – these are temporarily stored in the cookie folder of the web browser so that it remembers them until the user leaves the respective website or closes the browser window (eg: when logging in/out on a webmail account or on social networks.
- Persistent Cookies – these are stored on the hard drive of a computer or equipment (and, in general, it depends on the lifetime of the cookie). Persistent cookies also include those placed by a website other than the one the user is visiting at the time – known as ‘third party cookies’ – which can be used anonymously to remember a user’s interests so that advertising is delivered as relevant as possible to users.
What are the advantages of cookies?
A cookie contains information that connects a web browser (the user) and a specific web server (the website). If a browser accesses that web server again, it can read the information already stored and react accordingly. Cookies provide users with a pleasant browsing experience and support the efforts of many websites to offer comfortable services to users: eg – online privacy preferences, site language options, shopping baskets or relevant advertising.
What is the lifetime of a cookie?
Cookies are managed by web servers. The lifetime of a cookie can vary significantly, depending on the purpose for which it is placed. Some cookies are used exclusively for a single session (session cookies) and are no longer retained once the user has left the website and some cookies are retained and reused each time the user returns to that website (‘cookie- permanent ures’). However, cookies can be deleted by a user at any time through the browser settings.
What are cookies placed by third parties?
Certain sections of content on some sites may be provided through third parties/providers (eg: news box, a video or an advertisement. These third parties may also place cookies through the site and they are called ” third party cookies” because they are not placed by the owner of the respective website. Third party providers must also comply with the law in force and the privacy policies of the website owner.
How cookies are used by this site
A visit to this website may place cookies for the purposes of:
- Site performance cookies
- Visitor analysis cookies
- Cookies for geotargetting
- Registration cookies
- Cookies for advertising
- Cookies of advertising providers
This type of cookie remembers the user’s preferences on this site, so that there is no need to set them each time the site is visited.
Cookies for visitor analysis
Each time a user visits this site the analytics software provided by a third party
generates a user analytics cookie. This cookie tells us if you have visited this site before. Your browser will tell us if you have this cookie, and if not, we will generate one. It allows monitoring of unique users who visit us and how often they do so.
Cookies for geotargetting
These cookies are used by a software that determines which country you come from. It is completely anonymous and is only used to target content – even when you are on our page in Romanian or another language you receive the same advertisement.
Cookies for registration
When you register on this site, we generate a cookie that tells us if you are registered or not. Our servers use these cookies to show us the account you are registered with and whether you have permission for a particular service. It also allows us to associate any comment you post on our site with your username. If you have not selected “keep me logged in”, this cookie will be automatically deleted when you close your browser or computer.
Cookies for advertising
These cookies allow us to find out whether or not you have viewed an online advertisement, what its type is and how long it has been since you saw the advertising message.
We also use these cookies to target online advertising. We may also use third-party cookies to better target advertising, for example to show vacation ads if the user has recently visited an article on the site about vacations. These cookies are anonymous, they store information about the viewed content, not about users.
We also set anonymous cookies through other sites on which we advertise. By receiving them in this way, we can use them to recognize you as a visitor of that site if you subsequently visit our site, we will be able to deliver advertising based on this information.
Advertising provider cookies
Much of the advertising you find on this site belongs to third parties. Some of these parties use their own anonymous cookies to analyze how many people have been exposed to an advertising message, or to see how many people have been exposed to the same advertisement more than once.
The companies that generate these cookies have their own privacy policies, and this site does not have access to read or write these cookies. Third-party cookies can be used to show you targeted advertising on other sites as well, based on your browsing on this site.
Other third-party cookies
On some pages, third parties may set their own anonymous cookies, in order to track the success of an application or to customize an application. Due to the way of use, this site cannot access these cookies, just as third parties cannot access the cookies owned by this site.
For example, when you share an article using the social network button on this site, that social network will record your activity.
What type of information is stored and accessed through cookies?
Cookies store information in a small text file that allows a website to recognize a browser. The web server will recognize the browser until the cookie expires or is deleted.
The cookie stores important information that improves the Internet browsing experience (eg: language settings in which a website is accessed; keeping a user logged in to the webmail account; online banking security; keeping products in the shopping cart)
Why are cookies important to the Internet?
Cookies are the central point of the efficient functioning of the Internet, helping to generate a friendly browsing experience adapted to the preferences and interests of each user. Rejecting or disabling cookies may make some sites unusable.
Rejecting or deactivating cookies does not mean that you will no longer receive online advertising – but only that it will no longer be able to take into account your preferences and interests, highlighted by your browsing behavior.
Examples of important uses of cookies (which do not require the authentication of a user through an account:
- Content and services adapted to user preferences – categories of news, weather, sports, maps, public and government services, entertainment sites and travel services.
- Offers tailored to user interests – password retention, language preferences (Ex:
display of search results in Romanian.
- Retention of child protection filters regarding Internet content (family mode options,
safe search functions).
- Limiting the frequency of advertisements – limiting the number of times an advertisement is displayed
for a specific user on a site.
- Providing advertising more relevant to the user.
- Measurement, optimization and analytics features – such as confirming a certain level of traffic on a website, what type of content is viewed and how a user arrives at a website (eg: through search engines, directly, from other websites, etc.). The websites carry out these analyzes of their use in order to improve the sites for the benefit of the users.
Security and privacy issues
Cookies are NOT viruses! They use plain text formats. They are not made up of pieces of code so they cannot be executed, nor can they auto-run. Consequently, they cannot be duplicated or replicated to other networks to run or replicate again. Since they cannot perform these functions, they cannot be considered viruses.
Cookies can still be used for negative purposes. Because they store information about the preferences and browsing history of users, both on a specific site and on several other sites, cookies can be used as a form of Spyware. Many anti-spyware products are aware of this fact and constantly mark cookies for deletion during anti-virus/anti-spyware deletion/scanning procedures.
In general, browsers have integrated privacy settings that provide different levels of cookie acceptance, validity period and automatic deletion after the user has visited a certain site.
Other security aspects related to cookies:
Since identity protection is very valuable and represents the right of every internet user, it is advisable to know what possible problems cookies can create. Because through them information is constantly transmitted in both directions between the browser and the website, if an attacker or unauthorized person intervenes during the data transmission, the information contained in the cookie can be intercepted.
Although very rare, this can happen if the browser connects to the server using an unencrypted network (eg an unsecured WiFi network).
Other cookie-based attacks involve missetting cookies on servers. If a website does not require the browser to use only encrypted channels, attackers can use this vulnerability to trick browsers into sending information over unsecured channels. The attackers then use the information to gain unauthorized access to certain websites. It is very important to be careful in choosing the most suitable method of personal information protection.
Tips for safe and responsible browsing, based on cookies.
Here are some tips that can ensure that you browse without worries, but with the help of cookies:
- Particularize your browser cookie settings to reflect a level
- If you don’t mind cookies and you are the only person using the computer,
you can set long expiration periods for storing browsing history and data
- If you share computer access, you may consider setting your browser to delete individual browsing data each time you close your browser. This is an option to access the sites that place cookies and to delete any visit information when closing the browsing session.
- Constantly install and update antispyware applications.
Many spyware detection and prevention applications include detection of site attacks. Thus, it prevents the browser from accessing websites that might exploit browser vulnerabilities or download dangerous software.
Make sure your browser is always up to date.
Many of the cookie-based attacks are carried out by exploiting the weak points of old versions of browsers.
Cookies are everywhere and cannot be avoided if you want to enjoy access to the best and biggest sites on the Internet – local or international. With a clear understanding of how they work and the benefits they bring, you can take the necessary security measures so that you can surf the Internet with confidence.
How can I stop cookies?
Disabling and refusing to receive cookies may make certain websites impractical or difficult to visit and use. Also, refusing to accept cookies does not mean that you will no longer receive/see online advertising.
It is possible to set the browser so that these cookies are no longer accepted or you can set the browser to accept cookies from a specific site. But, for example, if you are not registered using cookies, you will not be able to leave comments.
All modern browsers offer the possibility to change cookie settings. These settings are usually found in the “options” or “preferences” menu of your browser.